The rules of Aid al Adha

1)-Making the ghousl before the prayer

According to Zadhan, when a man asked Ali Ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) about the ghusl, he said to him: “Wash every day if you want to” (*) The man said: “On Friday, on the day of ‘Arafat, on the day of sacrifice and on the day of Fitr”. (reported by Al Bayhaqi in Sunan al-Kubra No. 6124).

(*) That is, Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) initially understood that the man was asking him about taking a shower.

2)-Putting on a nice Islamic dress, using Siwak and using perfume (for men)

According to Omar (may Allah be pleased with him and his father): Omar (may Allah be pleased with him) found a brocade tunic in the market and brought it to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and said: “O Messenger of Allah! Buy this tunic with which you can beautify yourself for the Aid and when you receive your delegations…” (Reported by Bukhari in his sahih N°948)

3)-Not eating on the day of the Aid until one eats of the beast that one has sacrificed if this is possible.

According to Bourayda (may Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (PBUH) did not go out on the day of Fitr until he had eaten and he did not eat on the day of sacrifice until he returned and then he ate from his Odhiya (*). (Reported by Ahmed in his sahih N°22984)

(*) This is the name of the animal that is sacrificed on the occasion of Aid a Adha.

4)-Both men and women (menstruating and non-menstruating) must go to the mousalla (*), but the menstruating woman will not perform the prayer.

According to Oum Atiya (may Allah be pleased with her): The Prophet (PBUH) used to order us to bring out for Fitr and Adha, young girls, menstruating women and young virgins, but menstruating women used to stay away from the prayer and attend the good and invocations of the Muslims. (Raptured by Bukhari in his sahih No. 324).

(*) This is the place where the Aid prayer is performed

5)-The Sunnah is to make the Tekbir and out loud.

According to Nafi’: When Abdullah Ibn Omar (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) used to go out on the day of Fitr and the day of Aid Adha, he used to perform tekbir in a loud voice until the Imam came (reported by Daraqutni in sas sounan N°1716)

6)-The description of the el Aid prayer

According to Ka’b Ibn Ujra (may Allah be pleased with him), Omar Ibn Al Khatab (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Journey Prayer is two units of prayer, the Friday Prayer is two units of prayer, the Fitr and the Adha are two units of prayer without any decrease as it was said by the tongue of Muhammad (peace be upon him). (Reported by Ibn Maja in his Sunnah No. 1064).

There is no Adhan and Iqama for the Aid prayer: According to Jabir Ibn Samurah (may Allah be pleased with him): I prayed the two Aids with the Prophet (PBUH) more than once or twice without any adhan or iqama (Reported by Muslim N°887)

The additional tekbirat in the Aid prayer (saying Allahu Akbar) before the reading of the Qur’an, are the tekbirat that one makes after the tekbir of entering the prayer, in the first unit of prayer and after the tekbir when one gets up at the beginning of the second unit of prayer. (Imam Ibn Qudama Al Maqdisi said: “The tekbirat and the Dhikr between them are not obligatory and the prayer is not cancelled whether one neglects them voluntarily or by forgetfulness, I know of no discrepancy in this” Al moughni Vol 3 P275)

The number of additional tekbirat in the prayer of Aid there are two ways to do it

According to Abdullah Ibn Amr (may Allah be pleased with him), the Prophet (PBUH) said: “The tekbir for the Fitr is seven in the first unit of prayer and five in the second unit of prayer and the reading is done afterwards in both” (Reported by abou Daoud N°1151)

The second one: Four tekbirat in the first prayer unit and four in the second prayer unit: According to Al Qasim Abi abder Rahman: Some of the companions of the Prophet (May Allah be pleased with them all) informed me that the Prophet (PBUH) prayed for them on the day of Aid and he made the tekbir four and four and when he finished he turned to us and said: “Do not forget, as the tekbir of the Janaiz (prayer that is made over the dead)”. And he made the sign with his hand by retracting his thumb (Reported by Tahawi in Shariah Ma’ani Al Athar No. 7273)

7)-It is meritorious to listen to the sermon after the prayer but the one who leaves has not committed a sin

According to Abdullah ibn Sa’ib (may Allah be pleased with him): He prayed for us as an imam and then said: “We have finished the prayer, whoever wants to stay for the sermon should stay and whoever wants to leave should leave” (Reported by Ibn Maja N°1290).

8)- Girls are allowed to bang a drum and sing songs in which there is no religious prohibition.

According to Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her): Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) came home when there were little girls from the Medina with me who were singing about what happened to the Ansar on the day of Bu’ath (1). They were not singers. Abu Bakr said: “The instruments of the devil in the house of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah be pleased with him)? And this on the day of Aid! The Prophet (PBUH) said: “O Abu Bakr, every people has an Aid and this is our Aid” (Reported by Bukhari No. 952)

(1) It is a battle that takes place between the two tribes of Medina before Islam

B-The rules of the Odhiya (Sacrifice)

1)-The legality of the Odhiya

The Odhiyah is the animal that is sacrificed on the occasion of Aid

According to Anas ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (PBUH) performed the Odhiyah by sacrificing two horned rams of white color with a small one of black. He sacrificed them himself and pronounced the Name of Allah (Bismilaih) and made the tekbir (Allah oukbar), he put his foot on the side of the two animals. (Reported by Bukhari N°5558)

2)-Helping those who do not have the means to practice Odhiya

According to Oqba Ibn Amir (may Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (peace be upon him) gave me cattle to share among his companions for the Odhiya (Reported by Bukhari No. 5555)

3)-The one who is going to perform Odhiya should not cut his nails, hair or remove anything from his skin from the beginning of the month of Dhul Hijja, until he has sacrificed his Odhiya.

According to Umm Salam (may Allah be pleased with her), the Prophet (PBUH) said: “When the ten days come and one of you wants to perform Odhiya, let him not cut off any of his hair and skin. (Raptured by Muslim No. 1977)

4)-Which animal can be sacrificed for the Odhiya and for how many people?

Camelids (camels, dromedaries…)

Cattle (cows, oxen…)

Goats (goats, billy goats…)

Sheep (sheep)

-One animal of the sheep or goat family is sufficient for the people of a household, no matter how many there are.

According to Ata ibn Yasar: I asked Abu Ayub Al Ansari (may Allah be pleased with him) about how the Odhiya was done at the time of the Prophet (PBUH), he said: A man would sacrifice a sheep for odhiya for himself and for the people of his house so they would eat it and feed (the poor) (reported by Tirmidhi N°1505).

-One animal of the cattle family is good for 7 households and one animal of the camel family is good for 10 households.

According to Abdullah Ibn Abass (May Allah be pleased with them all): We were with the Prophet (peace be upon him) when the time of Adha came, so We joined seven for a cow and ten for a camel (reported by Tirmidhi No. 1501)

5)-The sacrifice is valid whether the animal is a male or a female

Imam Nawawi (d. 676 AH) said: “There is a consensus that the Odhiya is valid with a male or a female”. (al Majmou charh al Mouhadhab vol8 p 369)

6)-Minimum age of the beast

For Camelids (camels, dromedaries..) is the animal that has completed 5 years and entered the 6th.(1)

For cattle (cows, calves..) is the animal that has completed two years and entered the 3rd year.

For goats (goats, billy goats…) is the animal that has completed 1 year and entered the 2nd.

For the Sheep (sheep…) is the animal that has completed six months and has entered the 7th.(4)

(1-2)Al Mouala bil athar vol 7 p361 (3-4) Minhatoul Allam Charh Boulough Al Maram Vol 9 P292

7)-Defects of the beast that prevent the validity of the Odhiya

According to Oubeid Ibn Fayrouz: I said Al Bara Ibn azib (may Allah be pleased with him). Tell me what the Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade regarding the Odhiya? He said: “Certainly the Prophet (PBUH) made a sign like these with his hand and my hand is smaller than the Prophet’s (PBUH) and he said: “Four are not valid for the Odhiya: the one-eyed beast whose one-eyedness is obvious, the sick beast whose sickness is obvious, the beast that limps in an obvious way and the beast that is excessively thin”.

I said: I hate it if there is a lack of horns and a lack of teeth. Al bara Ibn Azib (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “What you hate, leave it alone but do not forbid it to anyone” (Reported by Nasai N°4369).

8)-The time of the Odhiya

The Odhiya sacrifice is only valid if it is performed after the Aid prayer

According to Jundoub ibn Abdillah (): The Prophet (pbuh) prayed on the day of sacrifice and then gave the sermon and then sacrificed. Then he said: “Whoever slaughtered his beast before he prayed, let him slaughter another beast in its place and whoever did not slaughter until we prayed, let him slaughter in the name of Allah” (Reported by Bukhari N°985)

The end of the time for the Odhiya is the sunset of the third day of Tashriq, so it is possible to sacrifice one’s Odhiya for four days, the day of Aid and the following three days. (Ahmed in his Mousnad N°16752)